Accession ID: MIRT003215 [miRNA, hsa-miR-421 :: ATM, target gene]
pre-miRNA Information
pre-miRNA ID hsa-mir-421LinkOut: [miRBase ]
Synonyms MIRN421, hsa-mir-421, MIR421
Description Homo sapiens miR-421 stem-loop
2nd Structure of pre-miRNA
Disease
Mature miRNA Information
Mature miRNA hsa-miR-421
Mature Sequence 48| AUCAACAGACAUUAAUUGGGCGC |70
Evidence Experimental
Experiments Microarray
Putative hsa-miR-421 Targets LinkOut: [ TargetScanS 5.1 | MicroCosm | microRNA.org | miRecords | miRDB | miRo | miRNAMap 2.0 ]
Gene Information
Gene Symbol ATM LinkOut: [ Entrez Gene | BioGPS | Wikipedia | iHop ]
Synonyms AT1, ATA, ATC, ATD, ATDC, ATE, DKFZp781A0353, MGC74674, TEL1, TELO1
Description ataxia telangiectasia mutated
Transcript NM_0000    LinkOut: [ RefSeq ]
Other Transcripts NM_1382   
Expression LinkOut: [ BioGPS ]
Putative miRNA Targets on ATM LinkOut: [ TargetScan 5.1 | MicroCosm | miRNAMap 2.0 ]
3'UTR of ATM
(miRNA target sites are highlighted)
>ATM|NM_0000|3'UTR
   1 TGATCTTCAGTATATGAATTACCCTTTCATTCAGCCTTTAGAAATTATATTTTAGCCTTTATTTTTAACCTGCCAACATA
  81 CTTTAAGTAGGGATTAATATTTAAGTGAACTATTGTGGGTTTTTTTGAATGTTGGTTTTAATACTTGATTTAATCACCAC
 161 TCAAAAATGTTTTGATGGTCTTAAGGAACATCTCTGCTTTCACTCTTTAGAAATAATGGTCATTCGGGCTGGGCGCAGCG
 241 GCTCACGCCTGTAATCCCAGCACTTTGGGAGGCCGAGGTGAGCGGATCACAAGGTCAGGAGTTCGAGACCAGCCTGGCCA
 321 AGAGACCAGCCTGGCCAGTATGGTGAAACCCTGTCTCTACTAAAAATACAAAAATTAGCCGAGCATGGTGGCGGGCACCT
 401 GTAATCCCAGCTACTCGAGAGGCTGAGGCAGGAGAATCTCTTGAACCTGGGAGGTGAAGGTTGCTGTGGGCCAAAATCAT
 481 GCCATTGCACTCCAGCCTGGGTGACAAGAGCGAAACTCCATCTCAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAACAGAAACGTATTTGGAT
 561 TTTTCCTAGTAAGATCACTCAGTGTTACTAAATAATGAAGTTGTTATGGAGAACAAATTTCAAAGACACAGTTAGTGTAG
 641 TTACTATTTTTTTAAGTGTGTATTAAAACTTCTCATTCTATTCTCTTTATCTTTTAAGCCCTTCTGTACTGTCCATGTAT
 721 GTTATCTTTCTGTGATAACTTCATAGATTGCCTTCTAGTTCATGAATTCTCTTGTCAGATGTATATAATCTCTTTTACCC
 801 TATCCATTGGGCTTCTTCTTTCAGAAATTGTTTTTCATTTCTAATTATGCATCATTTTTCAGATCTCTGTTTCTTGATGT
 881 CATTTTTAATGTTTTTTTAATGTTTTTTATGTCACTAATTATTTTAAATGTCTGTACTTGATAGACACTGTAATAGTTCT
 961 ATTAAATTTAGTTCCTGCTGTTTATATCTGTTGATTTTTGTATTTGATAGGCTGTTCATCCAGTTTTGTCTTTTTGAAAA
1041 GTGAGTTTATTTTCAGCAAGGCTTTATCTATGGGAATCTTGAGTGTCTGTTTATGTCATATTCCCAGGGCTGTTGCTGCA
1121 CACAAGCCCATTCTTATTTTAATTTCTTGGCTTTAGGGTTTCCATACCTGAAGTGTAGCATAAATACTGATAGGAGATTT
1201 CCCAGGCCAAGGCAAACACACTTCCTCCTCATCTCCTTGTGCTAGTGGGCAGAATATTTGATTGATGCCTTTTTCACTGA
1281 GAGTATAAGCTTCCATGTGTCCCACCTTTATGGCAGGGGTGGAAGGAGGTACATTTAATTCCCACTGCCTGCCTTTGGCA
1361 AGCCCTGGGTTCTTTGCTCCCCATATAGATGTCTAAGCTAAAAGCCGTGGGTTAATGAGACTGGCAAATTGTTCCAGGAC
1441 AGCTACAGCATCAGCTCACATATTCACCTCTCTGGTTTTTCATTCCCCTCATTTTTTTCTGAGACAGAGTCTTGCTCTGT
1521 CACCCAGGCTGGAGTGCAGTGGCATGATCTCAGCTCACTGAAACCTCTGCCTCCTGGGTTCAAGCAATTCTCCTGCCTCA
1601 GCCTCCCGAGTAGCTGGGACTACAGGCGTGTGCCAACACGCCCGGCTAATTTTTTGTATTTTTATTAGAGACGGAGTTTC
1681 ACCGTGTTAGCCAGGATGGTCTCGATCGCTTGACCTCGTGATCCACCCTCCTCGGCCTCCCAAAGTGCTGGGATTACAGG
1761 TGTGAGCCACCGCGCCCGGCCTCATTCCCCTCATTTTTGACCGTAAGGATTTCCCCTTTCTTGTAAGTTCTGCTATGTAT
1841 TTAAAAGAATGTTTTCTACATTTTATCCAGCATTTCTCTGTGTTCTGTTGGAAGGGAAGGGCTTAGGTATCTAGTTTGAT
1921 ACATAGGTAGAAGTGGAACATTTCTCTGTCCCCCAGCTGTCATCATATAAGATAAACATCAGATAAAAAGCCACCTGAAA
2001 GTAAAACTACTGACTCGTGTATTAGTGAGTATAATCTCTTCTCCATCCTTAGGAAAATGTTCATCCCAGCTGCGGAGATT
2081 AACAAATGGGTGATTGAGCTTTCTCCTCGTATTTGGACCTTGAAGGTTATATAAATTTTTTTCTTATGAAGAGTTGGCAT
2161 TTCTTTTTATTGCCAATGGCAGGCACTCATTCATATTTGATCTCCTCACCTTCCCCTCCCCTAAAACCAATCTCCAGAAC
2241 TTTTTGGACTATAAATTTCTTGGTTTGACTTCTGGAGAACTGTTCAGAATATTACTTTGCATTTCAAATTACAAACTTAC
2321 CTTGGTGTATCTTTTTCTTACAAGCTGCCTAAATGAATATTTGGTATATATTGGTAGTTTTATTACTATAGTAAATCAAG
2401 GAAATGCAGTAAACTTAAAATGTCTTTAAGAAAGCCCTGAAATCTTCATGGGTGAAATTAGAAATTATCAACTAGATAAT
2481 AGTATAGATAAATGAATTTGTAGCTAATTCTTGCTAGTTGTTGCATCCAGAGAGCTTTGAATAACATCATTAATCTACTC
2561 TTTAGCCTTGCATGGTATGCTATGAGGCTCCTGTTCTGTTCAAGTATTCTAATCAATGGCTTTGAAAAGTTTATCAAATT
2641 TACATACAGATCACAAGCCTAGGAGAAATAACTAATTCACAGATGACAGAATTAAGATTATAAAAGATTTTTTTTTTGTA
2721 ATTTTAGTAGAGACAGGGTTGCCATTGTATTCCAGCCTTGGCGACAGAGCAAGACTCTGCCTCAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA
2801 GGTTTTGGCAAGCTGGAACTCTTTCTGCAAATGACTAAGATAGAAAACTGCCAAGGACAAATGAGGAGTAGTTAGATTTT
2881 GAAAATATTAATCATAGAATAGTTGTTGTATGCTAAGTCACTGACCCATATTATGTACAGCATTTCTGATCTTTACTTTG
2961 CAAGATTAGTGATACTATCCCAATACACTGCTGGAGAAATCAGAATTTGGAGAAATAAGTTGTCCAAGGCAAGAAGATAG
3041 TAAATTATAAGTACAAGTGTAATATGGACAGTATCTAACTTGAAAAGATTTCAGGCGAAAAGAATCTGGGGTTTGCCAGT
3121 CAGTTGCTCAAAAGGTCAATGAAAACCAAATAGTGAAGCTATCAGAGAAGCTAATAAATTATAGACTGCTTGAACAGTTG
3201 TGTCCAGATTAAGGGAGATAATAGCTTTCCCACCCTACTTTGTGCAGGTCATACCTCCCCAAAGTGTTTACCTAATCAGT
3281 AGGTTCACAAACTCTTGGTCATTATAGTATATGCCTAAAATGTATGCACTTAGGAATGCTAAAAATTTAAATATGGTCTA
3361 AAGCAAATAAAAGCAAAGAGGAAAAACTTTGGACAGCGTAAAGACTAGAATAGTCTTTTAAAAAGAAAGCCAGTATATTG
3441 GTTTGAAATATAGAGATGTGTCCCAATTTCAAGTATTTTAATTGCACCTTAATGAAATTATCTATTTTCTATAGATTTTA
3521 GTACTATTGAATGTATTACTTTACTGTTACCTGAATTTATTATAAAGTGTTTTTGAATAAATAATTCTAAAAGC
Target sites Provided by authors  Predicted by miRanda
Experimental Support 1 for Functional miRNA-Target Interaction
miRNA:Target hsa-miR-421 :: ATM    [ Functional MTI ]
Validation Method Luciferase reporter assay , qRT-PCR , Western blot , Other
Conditions HeLa
Location of target site 3'UTR
Tools used in this research microCOSm
Original Description (Extracted from the article) ... A signii??cant reduction (30%) in the luciferase activity of the reporter construct containing the ATM 3`UTR was observed in the presence of miR-421, whereas no changes were noted in the luciferase activity of the unmodii??ed construct (pRL) with miR-421 expression (Fig. 1C). ...

- Hu, H. Du, L. Nagabayashi, G. Seeger, R. C. et al., 2010, Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A.

Article - Hu, H. Du, L. Nagabayashi, G. Seeger, R. C. et al.
- Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A, 2010
Ataxia-telangiectasia mutated (ATM) is a high molecular weight protein serine/threonine kinase that plays a central role in the maintenance of genomic integrity by activating cell cycle checkpoints and promoting repair of DNA double-strand breaks. Little is known about the regulatory mechanisms for ATM expression itself. MicroRNAs are naturally existing regulators that modulate gene expression in a sequence-specific manner. Here, we show that a human microRNA, miR-421, suppresses ATM expression by targeting the 3'-untranslated region (3'UTR) of ATM transcripts. Ectopic expression of miR-421 resulted in S-phase cell cycle checkpoint changes and an increased sensitivity to ionizing radiation, creating a cellular phenotype similar to that of cells derived from ataxia-telangiectasia (A-T) patients. Blocking the interaction between miR-421 and ATM 3'UTR with an antisense morpholino oligonucleotide rescued the defective phenotype caused by miR-421 overexpression, indicating that ATM mediates the effect of miR-421 on cell cycle checkpoint and radiosensitivity. Overexpression of the N-Myc transcription factor, an oncogene frequently amplified in neuroblastoma, induced miR-421 expression, which, in turn, down-regulated ATM expression, establishing a linear signaling pathway that may contribute to N-Myc-induced tumorigenesis in neuroblastoma. Taken together, our findings implicate a previously undescribed regulatory mechanism for ATM expression and ATM-dependent DNA damage response and provide several potential targets for treating neuroblastoma and perhaps A-T.
LinkOut: [PMID: 20080624]
MiRNA-Target Expression Profile:

 
MiRNA-Target Interaction Network:
Strong evidence (reporter assay, western blot, qRT-PCR or qPCR)
Other evidence
144 hsa-miR-421 Target Genes:
ID Target Description Validation methods
Strong evidence Less strong evidence
MIRT001103 RBMXL1 RNA binding motif protein, X-linked-like 1 3 1
MIRT001104 CBX7 chromobox homolog 7 3 1
MIRT003215 ATM ataxia telangiectasia mutated 4 1
MIRT006190 SMAD4 SMAD family member 4 3 1
MIRT016100 NSL1 NSL1, MIND kinetochore complex component, homolog (S. cerevisiae) 1 1
MIRT016101 SRSF7 splicing factor, arginine/serine-rich 7, 35kDa 1 1
MIRT016102 GID8 chromosome 20 open reading frame 11 1 1
MIRT016103 EIF3K eukaryotic translation initiation factor 3, subunit K 1 1
MIRT016104 MAPK8 mitogen-activated protein kinase 8 1 2
MIRT016105 LIMS1 LIM and senescent cell antigen-like domains 1 1 1
MIRT016106 ZNF30 zinc finger protein 30 1 1
MIRT016107 GID4 chromosome 17 open reading frame 39 1 1
MIRT016108 DDX39A DEAD (Asp-Glu-Ala-Asp) box polypeptide 39 1 2
MIRT016109 ZNF678 zinc finger protein 678 1 1
MIRT016110 MIS18BP1 chromosome 14 open reading frame 106 1 1
MIRT016111 NXPE3 family with sequence similarity 55, member C 1 1
MIRT016112 RNF138 ring finger protein 138 1 1
MIRT016113 LIN7C lin-7 homolog C (C. elegans) 1 1
MIRT016114 RGMB RGM domain family, member B 1 1
MIRT016115 SREK1IP1 SFRS12-interacting protein 1 1 1
MIRT016116 TAF9 TAF9 RNA polymerase II, TATA box binding protein (TBP)-associated factor, 32kDa 1 1
MIRT016117 NR6A1 nuclear receptor subfamily 6, group A, member 1 1 1
MIRT016118 CD46 CD46 molecule, complement regulatory protein 1 1
MIRT016119 NDC1 transmembrane protein 48 1 1
MIRT016120 CREBZF CREB/ATF bZIP transcription factor 1 1
MIRT016121 POLR2D polymerase (RNA) II (DNA directed) polypeptide D 1 1
MIRT016122 CEBPB CCAAT/enhancer binding protein (C/EBP), beta 1 1
MIRT016123 FAM160B1 family with sequence similarity 160, member B1 1 1
MIRT016124 VAPA VAMP (vesicle-associated membrane protein)-associated protein A, 33kDa 1 1
MIRT016125 DDX3X DEAD (Asp-Glu-Ala-Asp) box polypeptide 3, X-linked 1 1
MIRT016126 CREBRF chromosome 5 open reading frame 41 1 1
MIRT016127 FAM122A family with sequence similarity 122A 1 1
MIRT016128 DNAJC27 DnaJ (Hsp40) homolog, subfamily C, member 27 1 1
MIRT016129 ZFP36L2 zinc finger protein 36, C3H type-like 2 1 1
MIRT016130 RND3 Rho family GTPase 3 1 1
MIRT016131 ATG2B ATG2 autophagy related 2 homolog B (S. cerevisiae) 1 1
MIRT016132 TTC37 tetratricopeptide repeat domain 37 1 1
MIRT016133 RBBP7 retinoblastoma binding protein 7 1 1
MIRT016134 AFF4 AF4/FMR2 family, member 4 1 1
MIRT016135 NIPBL Nipped-B homolog (Drosophila) 1 1
MIRT039353 LMCD1 LIM and cysteine-rich domains 1 1 1
MIRT039354 RANBP2 RAN binding protein 2 1 1
MIRT039355 USO1 USO1 vesicle docking protein homolog (yeast) 1 1
MIRT039356 AP3B1 adaptor-related protein complex 3, beta 1 subunit 1 1
MIRT039357 PAXBP1 GC-rich sequence DNA-binding factor 1 1 1
MIRT039358 PPARGC1A peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma, coactivator 1 alpha 1 1
MIRT039359 FAT2 FAT tumor suppressor homolog 2 (Drosophila) 1 1
MIRT039360 MTHFD2 methylenetetrahydrofolate dehydrogenase (NADP+ dependent) 2, methenyltetrahydrofolate cyclohydrolase 1 1
MIRT039361 GCSH glycine cleavage system protein H (aminomethyl carrier) 1 1
MIRT039362 LARS2 leucyl-tRNA synthetase 2, mitochondrial 1 1
MIRT039363 RPL18A ribosomal protein L18a 1 1
MIRT039364 EIF4A1 eukaryotic translation initiation factor 4A1 1 1
MIRT039365 DUSP3 dual specificity phosphatase 3 1 1
MIRT039366 PHKA1 phosphorylase kinase, alpha 1 (muscle) 1 1
MIRT039367 HIST2H4B histone cluster 2, H4b 1 1
MIRT039368 DDX20 DEAD (Asp-Glu-Ala-Asp) box polypeptide 20 1 1
MIRT039369 CAP1 CAP, adenylate cyclase-associated protein 1 (yeast) 1 1
MIRT039370 ACOT9 acyl-CoA thioesterase 9 1 1
MIRT039371 EIF4G2 eukaryotic translation initiation factor 4 gamma, 2 1 1
MIRT039372 MSL3 male-specific lethal 3 homolog (Drosophila) 1 1
MIRT039373 CEP57 centrosomal protein 57kDa 1 1
MIRT039374 RPL26L1 ribosomal protein L26-like 1 1 1
MIRT039375 PCNXL4 chromosome 14 open reading frame 135 1 1
MIRT039376 SENP7 SUMO1/sentrin specific peptidase 7 1 1
MIRT039377 DOK4 docking protein 4 1 1
MIRT039378 OTUD1 OTU domain containing 1 1 1
MIRT039379 CDC42SE2 CDC42 small effector 2 1 1
MIRT039380 MRPL38 mitochondrial ribosomal protein L38 1 1
MIRT039381 ATXN2L ataxin 2-like 1 1
MIRT039382 TSR1 TSR1, 20S rRNA accumulation, homolog (S. cerevisiae) 1 1
MIRT039383 GFOD2 glucose-fructose oxidoreductase domain containing 2 1 1
MIRT039384 RAB2B RAB2B, member RAS oncogene family 1 1
MIRT039385 PPP1R13B protein phosphatase 1, regulatory (inhibitor) subunit 13B 1 1
MIRT039386 NPM1 nucleophosmin (nucleolar phosphoprotein B23, numatrin) 1 1
MIRT039387 PARP10 poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase family, member 10 1 1
MIRT039388 PQLC2 PQ loop repeat containing 2 1 1
MIRT039389 SLC25A6 solute carrier family 25 (mitochondrial carrier; adenine nucleotide translocator), member 6 1 1
MIRT039390 PRR7 proline rich 7 (synaptic) 1 1
MIRT039391 AGO1 eukaryotic translation initiation factor 2C, 1 1 1
MIRT039392 FBXO11 F-box protein 11 1 1
MIRT039393 AHNAK AHNAK nucleoprotein 1 1
MIRT039394 GRK6 G protein-coupled receptor kinase 6 1 1
MIRT039395 SLIT1 slit homolog 1 (Drosophila) 1 1
MIRT039396 SLC9A6 solute carrier family 9 (sodium/hydrogen exchanger), member 6 1 1
MIRT039397 FAM172A family with sequence similarity 172, member A 1 1
MIRT039398 SPECC1L cytospin A 1 1
MIRT039399 SEPT2 septin 2 1 1
MIRT039400 CTC1 chromosome 17 open reading frame 68 1 1
MIRT039401 CDC37 cell division cycle 37 homolog (S. cerevisiae) 1 1
MIRT039402 ZNF280C zinc finger protein 280C 1 1
MIRT039403 ISY1 ISY1 splicing factor homolog (S. cerevisiae) 1 1
MIRT039404 ZMYND8 zinc finger, MYND-type containing 8 1 1
MIRT039405 SRP9 signal recognition particle 9kDa 1 1
MIRT039406 GAREML family with sequence similarity 59, member B 1 1
MIRT039407 INPP4A inositol polyphosphate-4-phosphatase, type I, 107kDa 1 1
MIRT039408 MLXIP MLX interacting protein 1 1
MIRT039409 DUS3L dihydrouridine synthase 3-like (S. cerevisiae) 1 1
MIRT039410 FKBP8 FK506 binding protein 8, 38kDa 1 1
MIRT039411 DNAJC16 DnaJ (Hsp40) homolog, subfamily C, member 16 1 1
MIRT039412 COPRS chromosome 17 open reading frame 79 1 1
MIRT039413 TUBA1B tubulin, alpha 1b 1 1
MIRT039414 CASP2 caspase 2, apoptosis-related cysteine peptidase 1 1
MIRT039415 RPS18 ribosomal protein S18 1 1
MIRT039416 HSP90AA1 heat shock protein 90kDa alpha (cytosolic), class A member 1 1 1
MIRT039417 COPA coatomer protein complex, subunit alpha 1 1
MIRT039418 RAB11FIP1 RAB11 family interacting protein 1 (class I) 1 1
MIRT039419 RHOB ras homolog gene family, member B 1 1
MIRT039420 PSME1 proteasome (prosome, macropain) activator subunit 1 (PA28 alpha) 1 1
MIRT039421 MCFD2 multiple coagulation factor deficiency 2 1 1
MIRT039422 CNOT1 CCR4-NOT transcription complex, subunit 1 1 1
MIRT039423 ZC3H7B zinc finger CCCH-type containing 7B 1 1
MIRT039424 AMZ2 archaelysin family metallopeptidase 2 1 1
MIRT039425 HTT huntingtin 1 1
MIRT039426 LBR lamin B receptor 1 1
MIRT039427 NCDN neurochondrin 1 1
MIRT039428 RASL10B RAS-like, family 10, member B 1 1
MIRT039429 RIF1 RAP1 interacting factor homolog (yeast) 1 1
MIRT039430 EEF1A1 eukaryotic translation elongation factor 1 alpha 1 1 1
MIRT039431 ITPK1 inositol 1,3,4-triphosphate 5/6 kinase 1 1
MIRT039432 RPS10 ribosomal protein S10 1 1
MIRT039433 SRPR signal recognition particle receptor (docking protein) 1 1
MIRT039434 FAM168B family with sequence similarity 168, member B 1 1
MIRT039435 CMAS cytidine monophosphate N-acetylneuraminic acid synthetase 1 1
MIRT039436 TRIM27 tripartite motif-containing 27 1 1
MIRT039437 NR3C1 nuclear receptor subfamily 3, group C, member 1 (glucocorticoid receptor) 1 1
MIRT039438 ATP6V0C ATPase, H+ transporting, lysosomal 16kDa, V0 subunit c 1 1
MIRT039439 ZXDA zinc finger, X-linked, duplicated A 1 1
MIRT039440 SFXN1 sideroflexin 1 1 1
MIRT039441 DFFB DNA fragmentation factor, 40kDa, beta polypeptide (caspase-activated DNase) 1 1
MIRT039442 RASAL1 RAS protein activator like 1 (GAP1 like) 1 1
MIRT039443 KIAA0100 KIAA0100 1 1
MIRT039444 CD276 CD276 molecule 1 1
MIRT039445 RHOBTB2 Rho-related BTB domain containing 2 1 1
MIRT039446 SMCHD1 structural maintenance of chromosomes flexible hinge domain containing 1 1 1
MIRT039447 FAM32A family with sequence similarity 32, member A 1 1
MIRT039448 RAB26 RAB26, member RAS oncogene family 1 1
MIRT039449 TMEM109 transmembrane protein 109 1 1
MIRT039450 NCAPG non-SMC condensin I complex, subunit G 1 1
MIRT039451 PRCC papillary renal cell carcinoma (translocation-associated) 1 1
MIRT039452 PPP2CB protein phosphatase 2, catalytic subunit, beta isozyme 1 1
MIRT039453 PHLPP2 PH domain and leucine rich repeat protein phosphatase 2 1 1
MIRT039454 RALGAPB Ral GTPase activating protein, beta subunit (non-catalytic) 1 1
MIRT039455 HADHA hydroxyacyl-CoA dehydrogenase/3-ketoacyl-CoA thiolase/enoyl-CoA hydratase (trifunctional protein), alpha subunit 1 1
MIRT039456 LEPREL4 synaptonemal complex protein SC65 1 1